Lesson Plans, the Play and History
Explored Through The Lens of Roman Culture
NEXUS Connects: Julius Caesar and Ancient Rome, from Republic to Empire
ALL SUBJECTS LINKED TO ROME
The lessons in Julius Caesar and Ancient Rome enable students to conquer Shakespeare’s figurative language without paraphrasing it. This interdisciplinary NEXUS volume includes a dramatic reenactment of the Battle of Philippi based on primary sources, an examination of partisan politics in post-Caesar Rome, the political role of the gladiatorial games, ancient art, and the physics of the catapult.
Supplements include “Solar Heating in Ancient Rome,” “Seneca’s Influence on Shakespeare,” and “Spartacus, the Gladiator General” (see Supplements Menu). Lesson Plans include “Caesar’s Last Mile – Writing Your Own Scene,” “Portia-Calpurnia Meetup (Writing Your Own Scene), “Comparing Battle of Philippi Accounts,” “The Real Caesar versus the Real Brutus,” and more (see Lesson Plans menu).
HE COLLEGE BOARD
“All NEXUS volumes emphasize the critical skills and analogical thinking that are crucial for success on the SAT.”
LASSROOM NOTES PLUS, NCTE (National Council of Teachers of English)
“Each [NEXUS] volume…is a hybrid of a well-written interdisciplinary textbook and a lively, attractive magazine.”
Aligned with Common Core Standards. For secondary students.
Photographs of Roman Arena in Nimes, France and Triumphal Arch in Orange, France by Gloria Wilder
Figurative Language in Julius Caesar and Roman Literature
Lesson on Shakespeare’s Language and the Writings of Julius Caesar
tudents learn to recognize, explicate and appreciate Shakespeare’s complex figurative language by using a 4-step explication method that satisfies Common Core Standards and serves as a rigorous mental aerobics for students that will dramatically upgrade their reading skills. Also, students learn to explore and recognize the relevance and universality of Shakespeare’s psychological insights and similar insights made by the real Julius Caesar in his Civil War by linking them resonantly to their own lives.
For more Julius Caesar Language Lessons see Lesson Plans menu.
Latin Poetry: Virgil, Horace & Ovid
The poetry excerpts we’ve selected paint a vivid picture of Roman social life, providing students with a rich context for Shakespeare’s tragedy and helping them to better understand and appreciate the power struggles in Julius Caesar and their political fallout.
This chapter is aligned with the following Common Core Standards: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1, R.2, R.3, R.7, R.8, and R.9 (for 9-10 and 11-12).
All Roads Lead to Roman History
Julius Caesar, General of Generals
his lesson introduces students to the flesh-and-blood Caesar, quoting substantially from primary sources, including Cicero’s letters and Caesar’s writings.
“This chapter draws on compelling details from Sallust, Appian, Dio Cassius, Cicero, and Plutarch to illustrate Caesar’s brilliance as well as his deviousness. A subsection on Caesar’s self-confidence and his vanity sums up his contradictions smartly, concluding where Shakespeare’s play begins.” – The College Board
This lesson is aligned with the following Common Core Standards: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1, R.2, R.3, R.7, R.8, and R.9 (for 9-10 and 11-12).
The Noblest Roman
sing primary sources, students examine the relationships between the real Brutus, Caesar, Cassius and Portia. Understanding the backstories of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar (the soap opera behind the scenes) makes the tragedy much more compelling and relevant for students. In this lesson and the subsequent two-part module “Aftermath of the Assassination” on Antony, Octavius and Cicero, students also investigate the nature of political alliances (what drives them) and the motivations and machinations of clever politicians and demagogues, which will help them to intelligently negotiate today’s complex political terrain.
This lesson aligns with CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.2, R.3, R.7, and R.9 (for 9-10 and 11-12)
Mark Antony and Octavius, “Aftermath of the Assassination” (a two-part chapter – see below for Part II)
n this dramatic lesson students examine the post-assassination alliance and subsequent power struggle between the historical Mark Antony and Octavius/Augustus, comparing and contrasting Shakespeare’s account with those of ancient sources. The lesson also explores how the young Octavius nurtured a relationship with Cicero (despite Cicero’s support of the assassins) to leverage power against Antony.
Aligns with CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.7, and R.9 (for 9-10 and 11-12).
“Aftermath of the Assassination” Part II – Cicero: Orator, Republican, and Proscribed Man
tudents read selected portions of Cicero’s masterful Second Philippic that illustrate the power struggle between Cicero and Antony (the struggle between a true Republican and a demagogue), demonstrate the power of political rhetoric, highlight and elucidate descriptions of Antony in the play by Caesar (“Antony that revels long o’nights”) and by Cassius who calls Anthony “a masker and a reveller,” and help students understand Octavius’ betrayal of Cicero whose proscription (they will learn from this lesson) was demanded by Antony for personal reasons.
MESSALA: …by proscription and bills of outlawry,
Octavius, Anthony, and Lepidus
Have put to death an hundred senators.
BRUTUS: Therein our letters do not well agree;
Mine speak of seventy senators that died
By their proscriptions. Cicero being one.
CASSIUS: Cicero one!
MESSALA: Cicero is dead,
And by that order of proscription.
Battle of Philippi
ften students find the Battle of Philippi section of Julius Caesar tedious and uninteresting. “Blood of the Republic, Battle of Philippi” is an exciting narrative re-enactment of the actual battle, based on ancient accounts by Plutarch and Appian and modern scholarship, which The College Board states “elucidates Act V of Shakespeare’s play bringing it vividly to life for students.”
This chapter meets Common Core CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.3 and R.9 (for 9-10 and 11-12).
The Gladiators and Arenas of Rome
tudents explore the Roman games and their political functions from the time of Julius Caesar to the reign of Commodus with dramatic details and accounts from Dio Cassius, Seutonius, and Cicero.
TEXT SAMPLE: “[Julius] Caesar and Pompey made gladiator games a key part of their political campaigns. People came to expect gladiatorial games in any Roman election. Today we look forward to national political rallies on television. The Romans expected blood duels, paid for by the candidates. The more dramatic the duels, the more votes the candidate usually got…”
Roman Art and Science
Art in Ancient Rome – Mirror or Mirage
This section “reinforces figurative language reading skills through wonderful illustrations of illusionistic mosaics, portraiture, and sculpture.” The College Board
This lesson applies Common Core CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.4 and RL.5 to visual art (for 9-10 and 11-12).
The Physics of the Catapult
Scientific American) helps students investigate the physics and math of the catapult, including how to extract cube-roots using calipers, as the Roman’s did, and how to calculate firing distances based on the weight of armatures.istorian of technology and Purdue Associate Professor Vernard Foley (a frequent contributor to
Roman Lesson Plans and Supplements
SUPPLEMENTS (photocopying NEXUS booklets, lessons and supplements is NOT permitted.)
Julius Caesar Activities
Julius Caesar Project Ideas
Julius Caesar - More History
Supplementary Lesson: Spartacus, the Gladiator General
his NEXUS supplement chronicles the Spartacus's slave uprising from it's beginnings at the gladiatorial school in Capua, where 78 trainee gladiators overcame their Roman guards with kitchen utensils, to the Slave/Gladiator army's sweeping victories across the Italian peninsula, and to its last stand against the twelve legions of Crassus.
TEXT SAMPLE: "Two hundred of the trainees plotted an escape. But before they could carry out their plan, they were discovered. Nevertheless, 78 of them invaded the school kitchen, stealing knives and anything else they could use as weapons. Armed with kitchenware, the gladiators fought their way to freedom. While fleeing from the city, they encountered several wagons loaded with gladiator arms. They seized these, then hid in the green slopes of Mount Vesuvius, the volcano that 100 years later would bury the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Soldiers from Capua pursued them into the mountains. But the gladiators slaughtered them and confiscated their weapons. Now well-armed, these highly trained fighting machines were a formidable force. What Roman soldier could stand up to a gladiator, even a trainee. After all, Roman soldiers spent more time building roads, bridges and fortifications than fighting. Gladiators practiced combat skills all day long..."
Supplementary Lesson: Empire in the Sun, Solar Heating in Ancient Rome
he city of Rome passed laws requiring all structures to be built according to strict laws that took advantage of solar heat.
TEXT SAMPLE: "It’s obvious that in the Northern Hemisphere it is the south side of a house or building that catches the most sun. But how many of us live in buildings that take full advantage of this fact? The Roman architect Vitruvius made this a fundamental design feature in his housing recommendations. In developed centers like Rome, laws were passed that prevented anyone from erecting a new building that blocked an older structure’s access to the sun."
"The Romans planned entire suburbs in which every house faced the southwest, had few openings to the north or east, and included partial walls around the sun-exposed openings to allow the heated air within to circulate rather than to leak away. These partial walls consisted of..."
Advanced Supplementary Lesson: Virtue and Rage, Seneca's Influence on Shakespeare
tudents explore ways in which the Roman writer and stoic philosopher Seneca influenced Shakespeare. This supplement is designed for advanced students.
"Seneca’s achievements as a philosopher who had been politically active (at one time he was more or less de facto Roman Emperor), coupled with his stoical suicide, gave his philosophy a prestige comparable with his literary style. This philosophy was Stoicism, one of the great philosophical systems to survive from classical antiquity. Stoicism proved highly congenial to the Renaissance, so much so that there was hardly an intellectual figure in the period – from Pico della Mirandola to Descartes, from Rabelais to Milton − who did not absorb and adapt some part of its canon. So it is hardly surprising that Stoicism should also make its appearance on the stage in one guise or another.
Early Stoics believed that humans should live in harmony with reason, the fundamental ordering principle of Nature, and rejected both encumbering emotional entanglements and the vagaries of Fortune. They could stand against the buffets of the world, both inner and outer....The Stoic was to be a model of self-possession: deliberate and rational in action, moderate in feeling, stalwart in adversity, and subservient to nothing, like the historical Cato and Shakespeare’s Brutus. When in Act IV, Scene 3, Messala reports to Brutus that his wife Portia has died, he simply says, "Why, farewell, Portia. We must die, Messala./With meditating that she must die once,/I have the patience to endure it now." Stoicism offered a picture of the self in disdainful withdrawal from contamination and compromise. Both under the tyrannies of the early Roman emperors, who preyed heavily on the Roman aristocracy with its memories of Republican liberty, and in the often dangerous world of the Renaissance court with its competitive and capricious princes, the picture of an inviolable self with its indomitably independent will was especially attractive....As Hamlet insists, voicing such an ideal of his friend Horatio (who is “more an antique Roman than a Dane”):"
Give me that man
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him
In my heart’s core, ay, in my heart of heart,
As I do thee. [Act III, Scene 2]
GUIDELINES: The NEXUS guidelines suggest interdisciplinary activities and student-friendly ancillary readings.